Ballet Terminology

(please note that this is only an introductory list of terminology that we require our students to become familiar with. This list is has been compiled by the use of several resources: from books to websites, experience in the classroom and more) reviewed Sept 25, 2005


Ballet technique is the method by which ballet steps are performed or taught. There are several different methods (or schools) of ballet technique that represent the historical development of ballet. At Wildwood Dance and Arts our technique is truly American in that the Director has chosen to use a combination of the methods described below. We focus on arm/foot/body positions within the English, Italian, and Russian methods. As we grow at Wildwood Dance and Arts we will be adding ballet classes ranging from Pre-ballet through Grade 8. Currently these "grades" are combined in several different "ballet levels" as noted in our class schedules. If you have any questions about placement do not hesitate to ask the Director.

Methods:

American ballet: Arguably a melting pot of influences from other schools of ballet, major US companies such as ABT and SFB hire soloists from all around the world, performances by these companies encompass a wide range of styles. Balanchine method: The Balanchine method is a technique that famous choreographer George Balanchine wanted his dancers to use, found at New York City Ballet initially, though the way they dance now is very far removed from the original. Extreme speed, very little plie, unconventional arms and hands, emphasis on lines, especially in decale, characterize this school. En-dehors pirouettes are often take from a 4th position (legs) with a distinctive straightened leg.

Danish ballet: Bournonville School: Very distinctive ballet school, with very basic use of arms, usually keeping them in preparatoire position. Perpetual use of simple diagonal epaulements. Vocubulary for men is essentially varied forms of beats. Pirouettes are taken with a low developpe into seconde, then from seconde, for outside turns, and with a low developpe into 4th for inside turns. Enormous use of fifth position bras en bas (prepartory position) for beginning and ending movements. Has many recognizable poses such as pointe derriere one arm in 5th, the other a la taille (at the waist), with a touch of epaulement. Famous dancers from this school include Erik Bruhn, and most notably nowadays, Johan Kobborg.

English ballet: Royal Academy of Dance method: The Royal Academy of Dance (RAD) was established in 1920 by a group of professional dance artists brought together by Philip Richardson, editor of the Dancing Times and including: Adeline Genée - Denmark ,Tamara Karsavina - Russia , Lucia Cormani - Italy , Edouard Espinosa - France , Phyllis Bedells - England Representing the principal dance training methods of the time the group formed the Association of Teachers of Operatic Dancing in Great Britain. Over the next fifteen years the Association grew in size and influence and which lead to the granting of a royal charter. At the last Privy Council Meeting of King George V in 1936 the Association became the Royal Academy of Dancing. In 1997 The Benesh Institute, international centre for Benesh Movement Notation, was amalgamated with the Royal Academy of Dancing. With over 15,500 members in 82 countries the Royal Academy of Dance is one of the largest and most influential dance education and training organisations in the world. Members receive a monthly magazine "Dance Gazette". It is the largest classical ballet examining body in the world. Over 200,000 candidates take RAD examinations each year. The annual Genée award has been made since 1980, for dancers aged 18 or 19, organised by the R.A.D. It is usually held in London. In 2004 gold medals were awarded to Alexander Jones and Ayako Ono. In addition gold medallists receive 7,500 Euros. Many gold and silver medallists go on to join the Royal Ballet, London.

French ballet: The "école Française" (French school of ballet, French style), is characterized by an emphasis on precision, elegance, and sobriety. The French are known for their complex beats, and their rigorous technical cleanliness, called "placement", which is more important to them than virtuosity. Mega-star dancer & choreographer Rudolf Nureyev choreographed re-worked versions of the great academic classic ballets (such as "La Bayadère", "Swan Lake", "Romeo & Juliet", "Raymonda", "Cinderella", "Sleeping Beauty", & directed Paris Opera ballet. His artistic direction was extremely strong, and he formed and named a whole generation of young principals ("Étoiles"), called the Nureyev Babies. (Manuel Legris, Laurent Hilaire, Kader Belarbi, Isabelle Guerin, Elisabeth Maurin, amongst others). Since that time the French school has turned into the Nureyev school, with his very idiosyncratic style, based on all the steps that Nureyev himself excelled at. Great speed and quantity of steps, necessitating the music to be played slower are characteristic of this style. This influence lasts from the 1980's to the 2000's, when it is just starting to wane, as the Nureyev Babies retire.

Italian ballet: The Cecchetti method of ballet instruction was created by Enrico Cecchetti (1850-1928). The method traditionally has eight grades. Grades one through four were added after Cecchetti died. Grades five through eight correspond to his original levels. Grades one through four are commonly seen in local studios to ready their pupils for the more advanced professional levels. If you pass level five then you are considered a real dancer. There are five different marks for passing a level. From lowest to highest they are: passed, passed plus, passed with commended, passed with highly commended, and passed with honours. Grade five marks the beginning of the professional levels and is known as elementary level. Grade six is known as intermediate level and grade seven is known as advanced level. A student who has achieved grade seven is qualified to teach the Cecchetti Method. After finishing advanced level students can choose to go on to Diploma A and Diploma B in order to further their learning.

Russian Ballet: A method of ballet technique that originated in Russia. It has very expressive upper body work, with less attention to detail in lower body work. En-dehors pirouettes are taken from second position for men (as opposed to 4th position in other styles). The Vaganova method is a method of teaching classical ballet that was founded by Agrippina Vaganova and developed into an exact science by her pedagogical pupil for over 30 years, Vera Kostrovitkaya and countless other teachers in the decades following Vaganova's death in 1951. Therefore, it is really a misnomer to call it that, as she meant for it to be called the teaching of classical dance. It is in the mistranslation of the title of her book, "Basic Principles of Russian Classical Dance" that it is implied that it is her method. She actually titled her book: "The Foundation for Dance." It is combination of the finest of the esthetics and physical results of strength, from French, Danish, and Italian schools, the method has produced many of the world's best dancers and continues to do so today. Vaganova is known for founding the Soviet System of Ballet Education, but her and Kostrovitskaya's teaching method has developed into the applied laws of physics and the core of the teaching does not need to be constantly revised and modified, as other ways of teaching that are not scientific. The method is still used worldwide.
The method demands precision in instruction, including how to teach, when to teach, how much of each exercise to give and for how long and when to change forms. Its results in addition to sound technique are a strong lower back, plasticity of the arms and the exact amount of strength, flexibility and endurance in the muscle needed to execute one of the most difficult movements known to ballet - that of the classical pas de deux.

Positions of the Feet
The position of the foot is determined by the rotation of the top of the thigh bone in the hip socket. Always turn out to your maximum, but never clench your feet or roll them forward. Keep an equal amount of weight on your little and big toe metatarsals (the balls of the feet). Remember that the rotation of your feet will increase as your turnout muscles strengthen. (the "0" is the heel, and the "---" the feet)

* First Position With your heels touching stand in your best turnout (toes outward). Let your feet melt into the floor to give your dancing secure roots.

----0 0---- Note the heels are held together, with feet at an 180 degree angle.

* Second Position Keep the turnout you established in first position, and stand with your heels aligned under your shoulders. Your teacher will help you determine the exact width that best suits your physique.

___0 . . . . 0___

* Third Position Cross one foot to the middle of the other. Check that your hips are centred equally over your feet, and not allowed to twist forward or back in sympathy with them. The heel is placed at the arch of the other foot.
* Fourth Position Here your feet are crossed , as in fifth position, but they are separated by approximately one foot length. In this advanced position, you must work hard to centre your hips between your feet, and equalize your turnout and weight placement.

----0
0----

* Fifth Position When you can stand correctly and work well from first position, your teacher will probably move your home base to third, and finally to fifth position. You may begin fifth with your front heel crossing to the big toe joint of your back foot, and then gradually increase this crossing action as your technique strengthens. Your legs are overlapping at the top of the thighs.


Positions of the Arms

* Bras bas; fingers of both arms are almost touching to form an oval shape, with both hands just in front of the dancer's hips.
* First position; maintaining this curved oval shape, the arms are brought up so that the tips of the fingers are in line with the navel.
* Second position; the arms are stretched out to the side, however there is a angle of the arms down and forward, and the palms are facing forward.
* Third position is a combination of fifth and second positions, with one arm in second and the other in first.
* Fourth position is a combination of first and fifth positions, with one arm in second and the other in fifth.
* Fifth position; this is a famous position of the arms - this curved position is brought up just above and slightly forward of the dancer's head.
* Demi bras is formed by lifting both arms to the side at about 45 degrees, palms still facing the ground.
* Demi seconde is formed by first forming demi bras and then rotating the palms to face the ceiling.

Positions on Stage/Body:

* Croisé: "crossed"- A position on stage in which the dancer faces one of the front corners with the legs crossed. In croisé devant, the downstage leg is in fourth position to the front; in croisé derrière, the upstage leg is in fourth position to the back.
* Efface: "effaced"- A position on stage in which the dancer faces one of the downstage corners with the legs crossed, upstage leg forward. The downstage arm is usually raised in this position, so that the face is shaded, or effaced; hence the name.
* En face: "facing"- A position on stage facing directly forward, toward the audience.
* Écarté: "separated"- A position on stage in which the dancer faces one of the front corners with the working leg in second position, either on or off the floor. The body is tilted slightly away from the working leg. The arm on the side of the working leg is raised; the arm on the side of the supporting leg is in second. If the working leg and raised arm are downstage (toward the audience), this is écarté devant; if they are upstage, this is écarté derrière.
* Devant: The French word for the front(side).
* Derrière: The French word for the back(side). For example, a battement tendu derrière means a battement tendu taken to the back.
* Avant: Normally used in conjunction with "en"; "en avant" means a step that moves forwards.
* Arrière: Normally used in conjunction with "en"; "en arrière" means a step that moves backwards.
* Dessous: The French word "over". This is where the back leg is brought to the front in techniques such as the assemblé and pas de bourrée.
* Dessus: The French word meaning "under". This is where the front leg is brought to the back, in techniques such as the assemblé and pas de bourrée.
* croix, en "in (the form of) a cross"- applied to exercises at the barre: the exercise is done first with the working leg moving to the front, then to the side, then to the back, and then to the (same) side again.
* À la seconde: To the side. For example you would do a battment tendu é la seconde, to the side.
* 'En dehors': turning outwards
* 'En dedans': turning inwards.


More Terms:
placement. Roughly, alignment of the body. Becoming properly placed means learning to stand up straight, with hips level and even, shoulders open but relaxed and centered over the hips, pelvis straight (neither protruding nor tucked under), back straight, head up, weight centered evenly between the feet. This posture is frequently described as "pulled up," but it is also a relaxed posture; you aren't tensed up like a soldier standing at attention. (A teacher once said you should imagine that you are suspended by a thread attached to the top of your head. This suggests both the "pulled-up" and relaxed aspects of good ballet posture.) And as you dance, you seek to maintain this posture except when the step requires something different, like épaulement, or like the slight forward arch of the spine that accompanies an arabesque.

adage [Italian ad agio: "at ease"; the musical direction, adagio, means "slow."]. The second part of a ballet class: slow work with emphasis on sustained positions and on balance.

allegro [Italian: "happy"; in music, "fast"]. The third part of a ballet class: fast work, jumps, turns. Usually divided into petit ["little"] allegro and grand ["big"] allegro.

spotting. A technique for for keeping oriented and avoiding dizziness during turns. Pick a spot (some conspicuous object); keep looking at it as you turn until you can't any longer; then quickly turn your head so you are looking at it again.

Port de bras: "Carriage of the arms", is the movement of the arms in a motion around the body. The basic port de bras moves from bras bas to first position of the arms, to second position of the arms, then back down to bras bas. A full port de bras moves from bras bas to first to fifth, down through second and back to bras bas. Variations of these may be found through different teaching techniques and styles.

Epaulement: (literally, "shouldering") Rotation of the shoulders and head relative to the hips in a pose or a step.

allongé ["elongated"]. With the arms stretched out as far as possible.

extension. The ability to raise the working leg high in the air. Good extension comes from a combination of inborn flexibility and training.

Plié: A basic bending movement of the knees; in French, it means "bent". This can be taken to demi-plié (a comfortable, natural bend) or grand-plié, where the dancer bends all the way down until their buttocks just reach above their feet, whilst maintaining classical turn-out. A true plie consists of the dancer using their own muscle strength (engaging the muscles) against themselves. This helps create "muscle memory".

Retiré position: Position of the working leg where the toe is pointed next to the supporting knee.

Battement: This is a kicking movement of the working leg (i.e. the leg that is performing a technique) "beat"

o battement jeté is a battement normally taken to anywhere from 2cm off the floor up to 45 degrees, depending on the style.
o battement fondu is a battement (usually slower) from a fondu (both knees bent) position and extends until both legs are straight.
o battement frappe is a battement where the foot moves from a flexed position next to the other ankle, and extends out to a straight position, by doing so hitting the floor (the so-called frappe).
o battement glisse is a rapid battement normally taken to 2-3 centimeters off the floor (literally means a gliding battement).
o battement lent a slow battement, normally taken as high as possible, which involves considerable control and strength.
o battement tendu is a battement where the extended toe maintains in contact with the ground. It forms the preparation for many other positions, such as the ronds de jambe and pirouette positions.
o petit battement, a battement action where the bending action is at the knee, while the upper leg and thigh remain still.
o grande battement, a powerful battement action where the dancer takes the leg as high as they can.
o grande battement en cloche, a grande battement which continuously "swishes" forwards and backwards (literally in large battement with pendulum movement)

Arabesque: (Literally: in Arabic fashion) A pose in which the dancer is standing on one leg, the other leg (with the knee straight) is extended behind the body, one hand is usually in front of the body. The back leg may either touch the floor or be elevated by an appropriate angle.

Attitude: A pose in which the dancer stands on one leg, with the other leg raised behind, to side or in front of the body with the knee bent and turned out.

Chaînés: This is a common abbreviation for "tours chaînés déboulés", which is a series of quick turns on alternating feet with progression along a straight line or circle. In classical ballet it is done on the pointes or demi-pointes (on the balls of the feet).

Chassé: literal meaning - to chase. A slide with both legs bent either forwards, backwards or sideways.

Pas: Literally, movement or a step. A pas de une is a dance for one, a pas de deux is a dance for two.

* Pas de chat - "step of the cat". This involves the dancer jumping sideways, and whilst in mid-air, bending both legs back up to touch the top of their buttocks while the knees are apart. The position sustained in mid-air is similar to the "butterfly" stretching position.
* Pas de basque - a grand movement ("step of the Basques") which is halfway between a step and a leap, and can be taken strictly on the floor (glissé) or with a jump (sauté)
* Pas de bourrée - a quick step involving the dancer moving on their toes, taking two small, rapid steps as if running on the spot on their toes.
* pas de cheval ["step of the horse"]. Starting with the working leg in pointe tendu, draw it along the floor back to the supporting leg; then, without pausing, move it up to cou-de-pied and back out to pointe tendu in a small developpé. The step resembles the pawing of a horse.

Pirouette: One of the most famous ballet movements; this is where the dancer spins around on demi-pointe or pointe on one leg. The other leg can be in various different positions; the standard one being retiré. Others include the leg in attitude, and grand battement level, second position. They can also finish in arabesque or attitude positions.

Fouetté: French: "To whip"; pronounced 'fweh-TAY'. A movement on one leg that requires the dancer to change the hip and torso direction, usually with a whiplike sharpness, while maintaining the leg direction and position.

Fouetté en tournant: The famous 32 fouettés that mark a virtuosic high point in Swan Lake and other ballets are actually fouettés en tournant (turning), where it is the working leg, not the torso, that does the whipping movement. Each fouetté involves the dancer standing momentarily on flat foot with the supporting knee bent as the other ('working') leg is extended in front then whipped round to the side, creating the impetus to spin one turn as the working foot is then pulled in to touch the supporting knee and the dancer executes a relevé, jumping onto pointe. Done 32 times in sequence without touching the working leg to the ground (or falling over, 'travelling' off the stage, etc.) it's a bravura performance designed to express the strength, triumph and indomitability of the character. And, of course, show of the technical brilliance of the ballerina. Male dancers do a tougher variant usually keeping the leg out - they're not en pointe.

Ronds de jambe: (Literally: circles of the leg).

Rond de jambe a terre is a rond de jambe on the ground. The moving leg describes a semicircle on the floor, either from front to back (rond de jambe en dehors) or from back to front (rond de jambe en dedans), between degage positions front and back, passing through first position as the foot comes to through the centre of the circle.

Rond de jambe en l'air is rond de jambe in the air. It can also be en dedans and en dehors. The movement is only below the knee of the working leg. It can be done in two positions of the working leg at 90º and at 45º. If the thigh of the working leg is horizontal, the toe of the working leg draws an oval approximately between the knee of the support leg and the second position in the air. If the thigh of the working leg is semi-elevated (demi-position), then the working oval is to the calf of the support knee.

Grand rond de jambe is a rond de jambe where the leg is sustained at grand battement height.

Demi grand rond de jambe is a rond de jambe where the leg is sustained at a lower height than a grand battement, usually 90º.

cou-de-pied ["neck of the foot"]. The thinnest part of the calf, just above the ankle.

cou-de-pied, sur le ["on the neck of the foot"]. A position. A foot is sur le cou-de-pied if it is placed on the the calf just above the ankle. In the Russian school, the foot is actually wrapped around the ankle, with the heel forward and the toes back. It may be placed on the front of the calf in this position, at the side, or in back. The back position is sometimes called, incorrectly, coupe.

coupé ["cut"]. A linking step in which the working foot displaces the supporting foot (cuts it away). Sometimes used, incorrectly, for the position sur le coupe de pied in back or, less often, in front.

détourné ["turned aside"]. A smooth turn made by pivoting on the toes in relevé.

pointe tendu ["stretched point (of the foot)"]. A position in which the working leg is stretched straight out in any direction with only the tip of the foot touching the floor.

assemblé ["assembled"]. A jump: plié, brushing working leg out. Jump. Bring both legs together ("assemble" them) into fifth position while in midair; land on both feet. The brush can be to the front, the side, or the back.

balancé ["rocking"]. A waltz step. For a balancé to the right, start in fifth position. On count of 1-2-3, right foot goes out to the side and the weight is transferred to it (1). Immediately bring left foot behind right and and transfer the weight to the ball of the left foot while rising up on it (2). Put your weight back on the right foot flat on the floor (not raised up) (3). A balancé to one side is almost always followed by a balancé to the other side. Balancés can also be done to the front and back or turning.

balançoire. Short for battements en balançoire, ["battements like a seesaw"]. The dancer swings the working leg vigorously back and forth between fourth position front and fourth back, through first position. Unlike grand battements en cloche, balançoires do not require that the body be held straight.

ballon ["balloon"]. The appearance of weightlessness and of being airborne. A dancer is said to have ballon if (s)he seems to be in the air constantly with only momentary contact with the floor.

ballonné ["ball-like"]. A jump. From 5th position, right foot front, demi-plié while the right foot glides to 2nd position at 45 degrees. Jump with left while travelling in the air towards the right foot. Land on left foot with the right having come in to the position sur le cou-de-pied front. Repeat by throwing the right foot out to the side again from the position sur le cou-de-pied. Can be done in many different directions.

ballotté ["tossed"]. A jump. Begin in 5th, right leg front. Spring straight upward with both legs held tightly together, as the body begins to tilt slightly backward at the apex of the jump. The body lands on the left foot while the right is thrown open to the front. Repeat backwards, with a slight tilt to the front at the apex of the jump.

cambré ["bent"]. A bend from the waist in any direction, but especially forward or back.

changement (short for changement de pieds ["change of the feet"]). A jump, straight up, starting from fifth position with one foot in front and landing in fifth position with the other foot in front.

dégagé ["disengaged"]. A movement or position in which the working leg is lifted off the floor.

détourné ["turned aside"]. A smooth turn made by pivoting on the toes in relevé.

developpé ["developed"]. A movement in which the working leg is drawn up to the knee of the supporting leg and from there smoothly out to a position in the air, usually at 90 degrees (i.e., parallel to the floor).

échappé ["escaped"]. A movement in which the legs move from fifth position out to second position or, occasionally, to fourth position.

emboité ["boxed"]. A jump. Start in 5th; assume the right leg is in front. Jump up, bend the right leg to 45 degrees. Land on the right foot with the left leg slightly bent and the left foot in front of the right ankle. The feet fit closely together, like a lid on a box; hence the name. Usually repeated to the other side: jump off right foot onto the left and land with right foot in front of the left ankle. This movement is often done while turning and travelling.

en l'air ["in the air"]. Used to describe movements in which the working leg is raised a considerable distance off the ground.

entrechat ["braided, interwoven"]. A jump in which the dancer's legs cross each other--from fifth in front to fifth in back--several times in the air. The number of crossings is indicated by a number after the word, and each crossing is counted twice (once for going out from fifth and once for returning to fifth). In even-numbered entrechats, the dancer lands on both feet, in fifth. In odd- numbered ones, the dancer lands with one foot sur le cou-de-pied. For example, in entrechat quatre the dancer starts in fifth position. If the right foot is in front, he jumps, changes his feet to left foot in front and back, and lands with the right foot in front again. (I suppose you could call a simple changement an entrechat deux, but I've never heard this.)

fondu ["melted"]. Any movement that lowers the body by bending one leg. In a plié, both legs support the body; in a fondu, only one leg supports the body.

frappé ["struck"], in full, battement frappé, "struck beat". Working foot rests lightly on the ankle of the supporting foot. Throw the working leg forcefully out to a degage position so that it strikes the floor 1/3 of the way out. Hold the leg out as long as possible, returning it to its initial position at the last moment. (Russian frappés start in tendu, darting to the supporting leg and back out again.) Can be done to the front, side, or back.

glissade ["glide"]. A connecting step. Start in plié; move the right foot out to pointe tendu; then move onto that leg, closing the left foot and landing in plié. Can be done in any direction.

glisser ["to glide"]. One of the seven movements in dance

grand jeté ["big thrown (step)"]. A long horizontal jump, usually forward, starting from one leg and landing on the other. In the middle of the jump, the dancer may be doing a split in midair. One of the most memorable of all ballet jumps; the dancer seems to float in the air, as a result of the shift of his center of gravity from the split.
jeté ["thrown"]. A jump from one foot to the other foot, throwing the working leg out.

passé ["passed"]. A movement in which the pointed foot of the working leg is made to pass the knee of the supporting leg. Frequently used--incorrectly--as a synonym for retiré.

penché ["leaning"]. A tilting of the body to achieve an exteme picture. An example is when the dancer is in an arabesque at 90 degrees. She then pushes her working leg upward and over, pushing the body down towards the supporting leg to achieve a much greater angle between legs, often resulting in a 180-degree split.

petit jeté ["little jump"]. A jump: brush the working foot out, hop off the supporting leg, and land on the working foot with the other foot sur le cou-de-pied behind. Can be done to the front, the side, or the back.

plier ["to bend"]. One of the seven movements in dance

plié ["bent"]. Knee bends, done with the legs turned out. Normally the first exercise in a ballet class. Demi-plié ["half-bent"] is a shallow bend (in all positions but second, as far down as you can go without lifting the heels off the floor); grand plié ["big plié"] is a deep bend, down to where the thighs are almost horizontal. In all positions except second, the heels release from the floor in a grand plié.

promenade "walk"- A pivot turn in which the dancer moves slowly around by shifting the heel of the supporting leg. The rest of the body may be in arabesque or attitude. In a supported promenade, the partner turns the soloist.

quatrième ["fourth"]. Fourth position.

quatrième, à la ["in the fourth"]. À la quatrième devant is with the working leg stretched out to the front; à la quatrième derrière is with the working leg stretched to the back.

relever ["to rise"]. One of the seven movements in dance

relevé ["raised"]. A movement in which the heels are raised off the floor. The rise may be smooth or aided by a slight spring, depending on the school. A dancer in such a position is said to be "in relevé."

retiré ["withdrawn"]. A position in which the working foot is drawn up to the knee of the supporting leg. Also frequently called passé.

Resources and Websites used
Books:
Kersley, Leo, and Janet Sinclair, A Dictionary of Ballet Terms. Da Capo Press, 1979, ISBN 0-306-80094-2.

Grant, Gail. Technical Manual and Dictionary of Classical Ballet. New York: Dover Books, 1982, ISBN 0-486-21843-0.

Mara, Thalia. The Language of Ballet: a Dictionary. Princeton: Dance Horizons (Princeton Book Company), 1987, ISBN 87127-037-4.

Ryman, Rhonda. Dictionary of Classical Ballet Terminology. Hightstown, N. J.: Princeton Book Company, 1997

Vaganova, Agrippina. Basic Principles of Classical Ballet. New York: Dover Books, 1969.

Warren, Gretchen. Classical Ballet Technique. Tampa: University of South Florida Press, 1989, ISBN 0-8130-0945-6.
Online:
· The American Ballet Theater Video Dictionary: http://www.abt.org/education/dictionary/index.html
· The New York City Ballet Website: http://www.nycballet.com/nycballet/homepage.asp
· Le Studio Website: one of the studios in which "Miss Leah" trained http://www.lestudiodance.com/index.php
· South Bay Ballet: studio in which "Miss Leah" toured with Junior Ballet Company http://www.southbayballet.org/organization.html